The EN Eurocodes apply to the structural design of buildings and other civil engineering works including, geotechnical aspects, structural fire design and situations including earthquakes, execution and temporary structures. For the design of special construction works (e.g. nuclear installations, dams, etc) other provisions than those in the EN Eurocodes might be necessary.
It is basically used in 27 European Union countries, including Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland. However, other countries outside of Europe have also introduced Eurocode, which is Singapore. Previously, Singapore used the British Standard, but since April 2015, the use of the British Standard was abolished and changed to Eurocode.
Why the Eurocodes?
GThe EN Eurocodes are the reference design codes. After publication of the National Standard transposing the Eurocodes and the National Annexes, all conflicting standards shall be withdrawn. It is mandatory that the Member States accept designs to the EN Eurocodes.
The Eurocodes are currently at the stage of maintenance and evolution in order to address the variety of new methods, new materials, new regulatory requirements and new societal needs developing and to extend harmonisation.
There is a considerable interest in the use of EN Eurocodes outside EU/EFTA by countries:
- whose National Standards are based on European National Standards that will soon be withdrawn;
- who want to update their National Standards based on technically advanced codes;
- who are interested in trading with the European Union and EFTA Member States.
The EN Eurocodes may be used for the above purposes, because they are:
- a complete set of design standards that cover in a comprehensive manner all principal construction materials, all major fields of structural engineering and a wide range of types of structures and products;
- the most up-to-date codes of practice;
- flexible, offering the possibility for each country to adapt the Eurocodes to their specific conditions regarding climate, seismic risk, traditions, etc. through the Nationally Determined Parameters. Nationally Determined Parameters can also be adapted to the national approach and setup regarding risk and safety factors.
The Joint Research Centre collects, assesses and disseminates up-to-date information on the international status of Eurocodes adoption in partnership with relevant Directorates-General of the European Commission, TAIEX , CEN , National Standardization Bodies and relevant contact points at national level. The JRC Europe Media Monitor (EMM) tool also facilitates the identification of news relevant to the Eurocodes. Information collected by the JRC includes expression of interest on the Eurocodes by third countries, planned and performed dissemination activities, needs and implementation progress in countries of interest.
The status of worldwide interest in the Eurocodes is visualised in the Eurocodes map. The Joint Research Centre has developed the map and updates it based on the information collected (Figure 1).
Fig. 1 – Worldwide interest in the Eurocode
Composition of Eurocode
Eurocode consists of 10 main types as below.
|EN 1990||Eurocode||Basics of structural design|
|EN 1991||Eurocode 1||Actions on structures|
|EN 1992||Eurocode 2||Design of concrete structures|
|EN 1993||Eurocode 3||Design of steel structures|
|EN 1994||Eurocode 4||Design of composite steel and concrete structures|
|EN 1995||Eurocode 5||Design of timber structures|
|EN 1996||Eurocode 6||Design of masonry structures|
|EN 1997||Eurocode 7||Geotechnical design|
|EN 1998||Eurocode 8||Design of structures for earthquake resistance|
|EN 1999||Eurocode 9||Design of aluminum structures|
In particular, among other Eurocode criteria, Eurocode 7 (EN 1997) contains ground design, which is divided into two parts. Firstly, EN 1997-1 gives design guidance and actions for geotechnical design of buildings and civil engineering works and is concerned with the requirements for strength, stability, serviceability, and durability of structures. Part 2 of geotechnical design, which is called by EN 1997-2 contains ground investigation and testing.
GeoStru software supports Eurocodes and more. Most of the programs are compatible with local regulations from all over the world: America, Europe, Middle East, Asia-Pacific etc…